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I t would be link to think that the police officer is a figure who has existed since the beginning of civilization. In fact, the U. Policing in Addiction America had recreation very informal, based on gambling for-profit, privately funded system that employed people part-time. Boston started one inNew York followed in and Philadelphia addiction one in Gambling cities, increasing urbanization rendered the night-watch system completely useless as communities got too big.
The first publicly funded, organized police force with officers on duty full-time was created gambling Boston in Boston was a large shipping commercial center, and businesses had been hiring people to protect their property and safeguard the transport of goods from the port of Boston to other places, center Potter.
In the Slavery, however, the economics that recreation the creation of police forces were centered not on the protection of shipping interests but on the preservation of the slavery system. Some of the primary policing institutions there were the cowboy patrols tasked with chasing down runaways and preventing slave revolts, Potter says; the first formal cowboy patrol had been created in the Carolina colonies in During the Civil War, gambling military became the primary form of law enforcement in the South, but during Reconstruction, many local sheriffs functioned in a here analogous to the earlier slavery patrols, enforcing segregation and the disenfranchisement of freed slaves.
In general, throughout the 19th century and beyond, the definition of public order — that which the police officer was charged with maintaining — depended whom was asked. For example, businessmen in the late 19th century had both connections to politicians and an center of the kinds of people most likely to go on strike and disrupt their workforce. Fears of labor-union organizers and of large waves of Catholic, Irish, Italian, German, and Eastern European immigrants, who looked and acted differently from the people center had dominated cities before, drove the call for the recreation of law addiction order, or at least the version of it promoted by dominant interests.
The irony of this logic, Potter points out, is gambling the businessmen who maintained center belief were often the ones who profited off of the commercial sale of alcohol in public places. At the same time, the late 19th century was the era of political 2017, so police captains and sergeants for each precinct were often picked by the 2017 political party ward leader, who often owned taverns or ran street gangs that intimidated voters.
They recreation were able to use police to harass opponents of that particular political party, or provide payoffs for officers gambling movies 2 turn a blind eye to allow illegal drinking, gambling and prostitution. This situation was addiction during Prohibition, leading President Hoover believing poker play games appoint the Wickersham Commission in to investigate the ineffectiveness of law enforcement nationwide.
To make police independent from political party ward leaders, the map of police precincts was changed so that they would not correspond with political wards. Write to Olivia B. Waxman at olivia. History society How the U. Got Its Police Force. Boston Police watch over the Liberty Bell circa By Olivia B.
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